a message from your majesty

Ladies and gentlemen, we are gathered here today to negotiate the British North American Act, whether or not the provinces should confederate and govern for themselves, leaving the arms of England. Present here today, we have the province of Canada, the Maritimes, prince Edward island, Newfound land, and Nova Scotia.

While the colonies are under England’s control, England must provide the colonies with funds to cover for the expenses that they need for any development, and some of these funds can be expensive such as the railroads. The British mainland is paying for the expansion of two land masses, and is taking up valuable money and time. And though taxes could be raised to cover for these funds, we have seen the outcomes of what happened before, and do not want a repeat. Have we let the colonies govern for themselves, England could save precious money and time to expand on the mainlands.

We have seen and experienced what happened when we put hostile restraints on our empire. The bloodshed and wars with America have taught us, that we don’t always need political control when the colonies can be independent. We are glad that the colonies have approached us to avoid trivial conflicts and war, and instead to seek out for a better future for both parties.

However, we cannot neglect to recognize, that if we were to let go of the colonies, there would be drawbacks. The colonies have provided many resources and materials for England, and if we were to follow through with confederation, England would lose easy access to resources that we take for granted. Keeping political and economic control over these resources would benefit the people, development, and economy of England greatly, but the repercussions that could come with that could lead to destruction of our relationship with the colonials.

I speak for myself and for the vast majority of England when I say that I take deepest interest in confederation for it will make the provinces great and prosperous. We have watched and learned from our conflicts with America, and believe, that if we were to discuss a peaceful treaty, we could expand and prevent history from repeating itself. The British North American colonies would be independent, while still loyal to English reign.

With all this said, I would like to ask everyone to please be seated and let us begin todays conference.

 

 

TALONS Ted Talk: Colour Deficiency

For my TED talk, I decided to cover the concept of colour deficiency and how it affects someones life. I chose to cover this topic because my brother has colour deficiency and I wanted to educate myself and others about this often overlooked, and misread topic. During the video there will be a spot where you can test out colour deficiency tests for yourself, feel free to pause the video for its on the screen for a short period of time. I hope you enjoy!

Link

 

Citations

Color Vision Deficiency. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/eye-and-vision-problems/glossary-of-eye-and-vision-conditions/color-deficiency

Color vision deficiency – Genetics Home Reference. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/color-vision-deficiency

Ishihara’s Test for Colour Deficiency: 38 Plates Edition. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.color-blindness.com/ishiharas-test-for-colour-deficiency-38-plates-edition/

Color Deficiency. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.stereooptical.com/color-deficiency/

Myers, D. G. (2008). Psychology: First canadian edition. Place of publication not identified: Worth Pub.

Inherited Colour Vision Deficiency. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.colourblindawareness.org/colour-blindness/inherited-colour-vision-deficiency/

Independent Investigation #2

To what extent did the War of 1812 lead to the freedom of slavery?

1830, October 15th

A letter to remember

Richard Pierpoint

I was only 16 when they took me from Bandu. I was brought across seas and bought by a white man like I was some sort of product and a price tag and the pigment of my skin could determine my value. I spent around 20 years with the white man, following orders and being a slave, but things would change.

In 1775, I was given a chance to change. The American Revolution gave me a ticket to freedom and all I had to do was fight alongside the Loyalists. And so after Sir Henry Clinton issued the Philipsburg Proclamation, I joined the Butler’s Rangers, stationed in the Niagara Region. I was one of the few black soldiers named on the list of settlers. Many of the others weren’t enlisted, it was as if their service didn’t exist.

My hard work paid off in 1791 when I was granted 200 acres of land in Grantham Township. My insides jumped with joy and it felt like I finally fought for my freedom. This feeling only lasted for a little it, before I realized that I would have to clear all 200 acres of this land before I would be recognized as an owner. This job was impossible. I wasn’t allowed to marry a white woman, nor was I allowed to ask white men to help. It was just me and my 200 acres of land. And so on June 29, 1794, I wrote and signed with 18 other black men The Petition of Free Negroes. It stated that we wanted our land separate from the white loyalists. That way we can help each other clear land and support each other. To no one’s surprise, my request was denied. I eventually cleared my land myself but sold it. I went back to working in labor, nothing had changed except for the fact I’d moved further North.

As the years passed, the War of 1812 rolled around. Slaves were again given the choice to fight. I was 68 years old, and I knew, this was my last chance to fight for my freedom and the freedom of others like me. I started a petition, to start an all-black militia to fight for the Red Coats. I brought up my offer with Sir Isaac Brock and to everyone’s shock, he agreed, but only if there was a white Captain. I took up this offer, my heart beating, knowing I had moved a little bit forward towards equality between black and white.

Image result for the colored corps

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Colored_Troops

I formed a group of about 30 black loyalists, led by Captain Robert Runchey. Many men joined because they knew that if the Americans were able to move further up North, there would be re-enslavement. No matter how bad the labor in Upper Canada was, the Americans could do worse. Together we were called the Coloured Corps, a militia of free black men. I took on the role of a Private due to my age at the time.

October 13th of 1812 was the Battle of Queenston Heights, the first battle my men fought in. We were one of the first enforcement that came in after Sir Isaac Brock was killed on the field. The blacks fighting alongside the whites led to a victory for the British, yet it was still a tragic night, the fall of Sir Isaac Brock won’t be forgotten.

Yet, it wasn’t just on the battlefield where the two races stood side by side. We made up about 15% of naval corps, even when the Americans forbade letting black men ‘meddle’ in the war. As heard from friends, on the sea, the color of your skin didn’t determine your status, instead, it was your skill. Many people admitted that us black men were the strongest men on the boats. After the white men saw what we could really do, they started to feel threatened by us. When the racial division was gone, we were fearless, willing to fight for what we believed in, which was freedom.

In the end, the loyalists won, we thought we were going to get the freedom we served for. I requested to go back to Bandu instead of getting land. For the first time, I was shocked when they denied my request after all I’ve done. It was in that moment that I realized, it didn’t matter how much I served, how much I sacrificed, I was still going to be an outlier trapped on this new land. The grants given in 1821, were only 100 acres now, half of what our white counterparts received. Not only that, the land we received was poor, many of us didn’t settle.

The Black Loyalists were considered lucky, some slaves chose out of fear to stay and fight with their masters, others tried to escape and go off with the Native Americans and the Spanish. In fact, some American slaves didn’t choose to fight with Britain, because they believed that slavery in Upper Canada was worse.* However, for us, some of us were issued to Nova Scotia, others to New Brunswick and a little bit to Trinidad.

Black Canadian slaves were wedged between slavery and freedom, between race discrimination and egalitarianism. We fought as hard as we could, trying to live up to the standards that the British had set for us, striving for our freedom, yet we were still second hand to everyone else. The whites thought they gave us land, and they gave us a chance to fight, that it was derogatory that we wanted to go home, go back overseas to where our hearts lied. Many of the things we did weren’t documented, if no one talked about them, it would have seemed as if our efforts were never there. That we were always less than the the whites, due to the color of our skin and where we came from. All we could do for our own pride and dignity was pass on oral traditions on this new land that we fought for. We shared our stories along the coast, stories from Africa, and stories from the War. In hopes, that one day, we would be viewed the same as an average white man, we would be able to go home, return to our traditions, that one day, we would be free.  

Richard Pierpoint died in 1987, living to the age of 93. Image result for richard pierpointHis birth name was never known, for when he came to America, he was given the Christian name of Richard and the surname of his master. Pierpoint lived an incredibly long life with good health, many hardships, and he left behind a legacy for Black Canadians. There wasn’t complete freedom for African Americans or Black Canadians until after the American Civil war, where black Canadians had a role in the revolution. Even then, there were still some disparities in power. However, many believe that Richard Pierpoint took a big step towards freedom and took a stand for his own rights and his life, giving others the power to do so as well.

There are some points in this blog post that are subjective due to the fact that the records that were kept on African Americans were very loose.

*There were slaves escaping from the North and heading down to Michigan. Slavery went both ways, though it was more prominent in the South.

Focus Questions:

Historical Significance

Cause and Consequence

Historical Perspective

Social Studies Inquiry Process

Citations:

www.pbs.org/wned/war-of-1812/essays/black-soldier-and-sailors-war/

http://www.blackhistorycanada.ca/events.php?themeid=21&id=5

Slavery Played a Key Role in the War—of 1812

https://www.nps.gov/articles/wedged-between-slavery-and-freedom.htm

http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/richard-pierpoint/

http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/the-coloured-corps-african-canadians-and-the-war-of-1812/

https://www.historicacanada.ca/content/heritage-minutes/richard-pierpoint

https://www.thestar.com/opinion/editorialopinion/2012/02/06/richard_pierpoint_a_very_canadian_hero.html

 

 

FINAL VOCAB TEST WORDS

Hapless

Persevere

Emulate

Cacophonous

Reproach

Plethora

Unfounded

Ascribe

Contemplate

Vigilant

Authentic

Ironic

Quandary

Bemused

Laconic

Perpetuate

Irate

revulsion

Impediment

Personnification

Dismantle

Contradict

Desolate

Insidious

Quintessential

Aesthetic

Delirious

Proclivity

Recalcitrant

Subtle

Reconcile

Resilient

Taciturn

Censorious

Nomadic

Banal

Penultimate

Guileful

Complicit

Opulence

Unwitting

Corroborate

Intrinsic

Treasonous

Cyclical

Predominant

Peremptory

Catalyst

Sovereign

Antithesis

Prerogative

Illicit

Seditious

Martyr

Tarif

Fastidious

Clandestine

Colonize

Paradigm

Chary

Depose

Boycott

Galvanize

Ardent

Mollify

Hegemony

Remonstrate

Kakistocracy

Extenuation

Acumen

Radicalization

Deluge

Apprise

Subordinate

Subtext

Nascent

Capricious

Abhorrent

 

Ecological Footprint

THE PLAN:

After the long, but helpful, survey, I found out that my ecological footprint is 7.45 hectares. I found that my number was relatively average compared to my peers. It wasn’t the lowest number, yet it also wasn’t the highest. However, considering for just one 15-year-old girl, this number still seemed to be a bit extravagant. I’ve thought it through and I came up with the ten most prominent reasons why my ecological footprint is so large.

The main one is the foods I’ve been eating. Since I am not vegetarian, I do eat meant basically everyday of the week and most of it isn’t locally grown because it is more pricey than regular meat. Another one of the bigger ones was transportation. I have a lot of extra curricular that I get a ride to and this greatly impacted my footprint. This directly connects to the ‘fun’ portion of the survey. The extra curricular I do takes place in a lot of different locations the land area that I use takes up a lot of space and equipment. As well as I spend a lot of time looking at a screen (homework, pass time, communication etc.)

These are the big factors that contributed to my footprint but there are smaller details that also created a dent. Things such as I take 5-10-minute showers and not all my appliances are water saving, or that I produce a good amount of trash on a regular basis (wrappers, papers, organic waste, hygiene products). To add on to trash, I’m not very aware of avoiding disposable items. I’m a messy persona t times, and I happen to throw things around and when I lose them I just get new ones. Examples of this are, lined paper, pens, earbuds, pop cans etc. As well as, around half of my clothes is store bought and the rest are hand me downs. Something else is that I live in a three-story house and there are only 5 people living in it, meaning there’s a lot of empty space.

After seeing how much space that I take up, I wanted to make some changes. I set up these five actions that I could take to make this number smaller. One of which is trying to eat locally. This will mean that this is a change for my whole family; However, changing this will greatly change my ecological footprint. This will be difficult because of the price of locally grown meat is more expensive than regular meat. Something that is easier to change is the transportation aspect. I will try to bus or walk to more of my extra curriculars to cut down on using my family car as much. This will change my footprint because I spend a lot of time afterschool in my car when I could simply walk or take public transportation. I feel that this one is especially important because its such an easy fix that could create a very big impact.

There are also some smaller things that I would like to change. For example, the one that I’m going to be very aware of is my screen time. I want to try to spend a max of 2 hours looking straight into a screen. Because of the homework I have, and the current society I live in, it is unrealistic to say I will limit it to 2 hours. My goal is to between every hour, I will take a 30 min break from blue light. Though this won’t do a big change to my ecological footprint (using the handout we got as reference), it’ll still cut down my screen time and is better for my health. Another thing that I want to change links right back to my In-Depth which is upcycling clothing and sewing. Rather than going out and buying new clothes, I can take old hand me downs, or thrifted clothes and upcycle it into something new. This will cut back the money and resources I spend to get brand new clothing when it’s unnecessary.

Last but not least, I will be more aware of the disposable items that I use. I’m going to cut back on the pop cans that I buy and become more organized, so I don’t lose things like pens, and constantly need new sheets of lined paper. This will help me create less trash, improve my overall health, and work on my organization skills.

THE REFLECTION:

After around a month of these changes, I found that some of these actions were hard to commit to; However, others were very simple changes that made a big difference. One of the biggest ones that were easy was transportation. I started to take the bus to my extra curricular that were nearby, no matter the weather. This increased my physical movement and cut down on the amount of time I spent in my family car. Sometimes when the weather was nice I would walk.

Something else that I changed that I liked was avoiding disposable items. I cut down on my pop drinks intake and didn’t buy as much fast food. The best part was I avoided plastics when I could. I’ve switched to bar shampoo (to avoid the plastic) and I’m more aware of categorizing my garbage (compost, recycling, trash, glass etc.) This change made me feel better as a person because though this was small, it was a noticeable change. On Wednesdays when I would take the trash out, I realized how much my trash decreased and this gave me a wave of joy to know that I was making a change.

The next change was related to my clothing. This one just so happened to link right back to my In-Depth which is sewing and up cycling clothing. During the month in which I was trying to cut down my ecological footprint, I didn’t buy one new piece of clothing. All the clothes I bought/got were either thrifted and uplifted, or an upcycle of a piece of clothing I already had. This saved me money and allowed me to get clothing that I knew I liked because I ‘designed’ it.

Up till here, the changes I made were small, easy, and impactful. However, the last two changes were a little bit harder. One of the two is screen time. I said I would try to cut down on my screen time, but I didn’t stay true to my word. At first, I did well and didn’t spend much time looking at a screen. However, I started to have to use a screen to communicate, do work, and occasionally waste my time. I would tell myself I had to stop after an hour, but I always lost track of time or just disregarded the rule. This change was majorly based on self control that I haven’t fully grasped yet. Even if I didn’t achieve my goal, my screen time has cut down a little bit though.

The final and hardest change to try to achieve was buying local foods. Plants such as vegetables and fruit were easy to access. In fact, I even had some planted in my backyard. However, when it came to meat, it was a bit more of a struggle. Not only would it be more expensive, it was harder to find. And to find meat without preservatives, to be local, and within my family’s budget, it was just unrealistic to achieve. Luckily though, I was able to influence my mom to buy more locally grown and fresh vegetables and fruits which is better than nothing.

Overall, I think I have made a difference in my lifestyle and some of these changes will stick. For example, I will be more aware of disposable items, and I will take more public transit. I will keep an eye out for local foods with no preservatives or pesticides and be warier when it comes to buying brand new clothes. I will continue to work towards less screen time. As for the meat aspect, maybe I’ll go vegetarian, who knows?

 

 

 

 

 

The World Was Wide Enough

The World Was Wide Enough is the penultimate song in Lin-Manuel Miranda’s Hamilton. This song is a couple of the big main songs composed into one, and it covers the famous duel between Hamilton and Burr. During the duel itself, Burr’s state of mind is compromised, the world is distorted in his vision, and he has wild thoughts flying through his head. And so, the countdown begins. A reprise of the 10 duel commandments begins. During this part of the song, Burr states “this man will not make an orphan of my daughter.” Though Burr might have been thinking this, his daughter wasn’t necessarily alone. His daughter at this point was already married happily and loved by others as well.  Other key points during Burr’s perspective of the duel, is when Burr says, “They won’t tell you this in your classes, but look it up Hamilton was wearing his glasses, if not to take deadly aim, it’s him or me the world will never be the same.” Burr was a very cautious and confident man, but in this moment, he could barely hold himself together and he took all things into consideration. Right before the countdown ends, time stops, and Hamilton enters a soliloquy which relates back to the second song of the musical, My Shot. He talks about his legacy, how he wants to be remembered, and whether to throw away his shot, both figuratively and literally. He reviews the major turning points of his life after he came to New York and thinks about the people he’s encountered, that are waiting for him on the ‘other side’. Eventually, he concluded to make a wise decision and he shot his shot into the trees.

45d1a86ba6ef9891e9454b984117dfe3-1000x425x1

As soon as Burr heard the gunshot, he panicked, and shot his gun as well, hitting Hamilton right between the ribs. He gets rushed away as Hamilton gets rowed back to be with Angelica and Eliza. Burr goes to a bar to get a drink and he realizes, that if he educated himself with a broader perspective, and didn’t act harshly, that he wouldn’t have killed Hamilton, the two of them would have been able to spread both of their opinions, and that he wouldn’t be labelled as the bad guy in the future.

Though this is one of the longest songs in the musical, it only has two voices, Hamilton (Lin-Manuel Miranda) and Burr (Leslie Odom Jr). This song in a sense switches the two personalities. Burr is nervous and doesn’t want to throw his, or his daughters, reputation down the drain and he won’t let Hamilton destroy his family. Therefore, throughout this song, Burr becomes this rash man, who isn’t prepared, and his decisions are on the spot. Hamilton however, wants to be remembered. He wants to leave a legacy and he thinks it through. He realizes that sometimes, he isn’t always the center of attention. Therefore, he waits for it and throws away his shot. Both men’s decision changes their lives forever.

The historical duel started when Burr took the senate seat from Hamilton’s father in law, Philip Schuyler. Hamilton was already slightly aggravated by this. Therefore, in a couple of years when Burr was running for president a couple of years later, Hamilton stood for Jefferson instead of Burr. Burr in defense, sent him letters calling him names in public. This went back and forth for what seemed like ages. Finally, Burr couldn’t deal with it anymore and challenges Hamilton to a duel. The two went to the battlefield in New Jersey and commenced in a draw duel. The rest was history. Hamilton shot first, and Burr shot second, and Hamilton lost his life. Burr was charged but didn’t spend any time in jail, however, his political career was destroyed. In letters that Hamilton wrote before his death, he stated multiple times that he meant to throw away his shot, and the motive did include ruining Burr’s career. Burr also stated that “Had I read Sterne more and Voltaire less, I should have known the world was wide enough for Hamilton and me.” Sterne was an author that wrote books about characters who wouldn’t harm a fly (Tristam Shandy), while Voltaire wrote books about characters who often acted harshly and carried out executions to get what t they want.

hamilton_burr

The big idea that this song best fits is disparities in power alter the balance of relationships between individuals and between society. This big idea is highly prominent because the main reason Hamilton and Burr have these issues is due to their difference in power. Hamilton jeopardized Burr’s political career forever. The career that Burr thought he was for sure to have because he was born into a wealthy family. He never thought someone who came from the Caribbean could kick him off his position. He learned from new money, something he had never had. If the two men had been on the same social status, Burr wouldn’t have felt as threatened as he is with a ‘foreigner’.

This song impacts me the most throughout the entire musical because this is the song where both Burr and Hamilton had a huge epiphany. Hamilton learned that not everything is about him and that his legacy is written by both himself and others. Burr, on the other hand, learned that he isn’t the center of attention and his intentions and techniques aren’t always right.

Though the entire song is meaningful, there are three specific passages that I believe make the song the way that it is. The first one is “If I throw away my shot, is this how you’ll remember me?”. This quote relates back to the second song, My shot. When Hamilton is in his monologue moment, he asks himself if he should throw away his bullet. Whether or not this duel is worth it. If this bullet is what he will be remembered by, if this is how he wants to die. He remembers when he was told, “Dying is easy young man-Living is harder’ (Right hand man).

The second passage is “Rise up, rise up, rise up, Eliza! My love take your time I’ll see you on the other side.” This far into Hamilton’s monologue, he’s already chosen to “throw away my shot.” However, he wasn’t necessarily throwing it away, instead he was passing it to Eliza. He tells Eliza to carry on his legacy and to take her time, that she needs to persevere through and to remember than he’s waiting for her. He states that even through all that they’ve been through, he still loves her and always will.

And last but not least, “The world was wide enough for both Hamilton and me.” This portrays how this duel was unnecessary and a tragedy. Burr realizes that he let his conflicts and problems get in the way of his political pursuits. He didn’t need to rid Hamilton to be in power and to voice his opinions.

The major theme that covers this song, is fear of failure. The main reason Burr shot his bullet without thinking is due to the fact he didn’t want to die. He didn’t want to leave his daughter stranded. He didn’t want to lose to Hamilton, who destroyed his reputation. But most importantly, he didn’t want to fail. He didn’t want to fail to someone with no social standing and he didn’t want to fail himself and his family name. The stigma of failure caused Burr to act rashly and ruin his future forever. Because Hamilton wasn’t scared of failure, from taking big decisions, to taking his life, he was naturally more successful than Burr was.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Final indepth blog post!!

It’s the final stretch of In Depth! Over time, these past couple of months have flew by with this project. Since spring break, I’ve made quite a bit of progress. I made my first piece of clothing from scratch over the break before then I was mainly working on technique and new skills. Since my first piece of clothing (pajama pants) I’ve been a little more risky with my choices.

Lately I’ve been devoting my weekends to sewing and upcycling old pieces of clothing. Sarah J. kindly lent me her pattern for a simple dress. While I was making this piece, I ran into a couple of dilemmas. One of which, is the fabric I bought. Because I am on a budget, I decided to go to value village and pick up some bed sheets with patterns that I liked. This was the first problem because the design I picked out wasn’t exactly fit for a dress. Another problem I ran into was the fact that I got ahead of myself and disregarded the instructions and went rogue. The product wasn’t what I wanted exactly and didn’t really fit my style, which was something that I wanted to achieve at the beginning of in depth. However, after a little bit of redesigning and a lot of hemming, cutting and frustration, I was able to come turn my original fail of a dress into a cute baggy tank top. I paired this up with a short sleeve jean jacket and a pair of leggings and Timberlands (fake ones because real ones are expensive whoops). I was very very happy with my results and it motivated me to keep coming up with ideas.

outift-2

tank top: old bed sheet, 4 hours

capture

I started a look book where I sketch out my designs and the materials I need to that I can keep track of what I want to make. Some other things I’ve created are ripped jeans and embroidered shirts and accessories (scrunchies, headbands etc.)  I’m currently planning to create my own pattern and create a stripped shirt, overalls, work on embroidery and up cycle a pair of shoes and stockings!

To display my work, I plan on creating a learning center. I’ve asked a couple of my friends have volunteered to model my work (they are performing) and they will wear the clothes and behind them I will put a picture of my inspiration with my creation. Underneath each comparison of pictures, I’ll write the materials I used, the amount of time it took, and how much it cost/how much money I saved!

I can’t wait to present my learnings and I really think I found something I’m passionate for through this project. Thank you for this great opportunity!!

Hamilton Big Ideas

Emerging ideas and ideologies profoundly influence societies and events

“There’s a million things I haven’t done
But just you wait”

Hamilton states that when he arrives in New York that he has so much that he wants to do. By the end, Hamilton has changed America forever and he simply was an immigrant from the Caribean who started with nothing.

Disparities in power alter the balance of relationship between individuals and between societies

“And every day while slaves were being slaughtered and carted away
Across the waves, he struggled and kept his guard up
Inside, he was longing for something to be a part of
The brother was ready to beg, steal, borrow, or barter”

This passage shows that the environment that Hamilton lived wasn’t very forgiving and this made it difficult for him to get things as simple as education. If he were born into a high class family, then he wouldn’t need to ‘beg, steal, borrow, or barter.”

Collective identity is constructed and can change over time

“How does a bastard, orphan, son of a whore 
And a Scotsman, dropped in the middle of a forgotten spot in the Caribbean by providence impoverished,
In squalor, grow up to be a hero and a scholar?”
This shows that during that time, no one thought someone as ‘low class’ as Hamilton could make such a big impact on the world. It shows that overtime, people realize to rank people by ability rather than the family they were born into.

The physical environment influences the nature of political, social, and economic change

“Took up a collection just to send him to the mainland
Get your education, don’t forget from whence you came”

This passage shows that for Hamilton to make a change in the world in any way, he has to go to the ‘mainland’ (New York). The Caribbeans can’t give him the opportunity or education that he deserves and needs.

 

Independent Investigation #1

To what extent did les Filles du Roi change the health of New France?

Part A: Historical Significance

Les Filles du Roi was King Louis XIV idea to import young women into New France to marry with the men already there.

louis-xiv-lebrunl

King Louis XIV

This was King Louis way of fixing the population gap that existed in 1663. The majority of these women were all poor and some were even orphans. Not only that, they also went through a series of tests to test their virginity to see if they were qualified to voyage to New France at the time. In fact, due to some of their health, only 1 in 10 women made it from the voyage. This resulted in 800 filles du roi, the king’s daughters, stepping foot and becoming the founding mothers of New France. Because these women were so crucial to the building up of New France at the time, all of their records were well recorded. These records included genealogy records.

les-filles

Les Filles du Roi (The Kings Daughters) 1663

600px-x-linked_recessive-svg

Mother’s Curse Diagram

In 2004, there was a mutation that was hypothesized by a group of scientists from New Zealand and the United States called the Mother’s Curse. This hypothesis stated that the mother’s curse is an evolutionary effect that a mitochondrial genome mutation is inherited. However, this mutation only has an effect on men and not on women.

It wasn’t until recently that there has been evidence to support that this mutation actually exists in humans. Before this, the most evident supporting piece of data was in flies. It just so happens that the evidence is shown in the French-Canadian part of the world.

T14484C is a rare genetic mutation that is also known as Lebers Hereditary Optic Neuropathy, is a mitochondrially inherited degeneration of retinal ganglion cells. In other words, this mutation leads to vision loss in both eyes. This mutation is primarily found in young men located in the Eastern Canada region. In 2005 at Universite de Montreal, they traced the ancestry of 11 patients with Leber’s disease back to one of the original Filles du Roi. The one mutation that she had is responsible for 89% of Leber’s caused in Quebec.

This disease doesn’t only impact someone’s vision, it also impacts a mans ability to reproduce which is why natural selection hasn’t weeded the mother’s curse out yet. The DNA of a person is mostly on chromosomes, but a small amount is on the power house of the cell, the mitochondria. Only the female passes on the mitochondria part of the gene, while the male only passes it over on chromosomes. However, according to the European Journal of Human Genetics, mitochondria dysfunction leads to lower fertility in men. This is because even though the sperm doesn’t pass on the mitochondria gene, the sperm itself is filled with mitochondria to and if the mitochondria has a mutation, then the sperm won’t be able to fertilize the egg.

The area around Quebec City is populated with the most people with the T14484C genetic mutation and it has been traced back to les Filles du Roi. Therefore, even though those women were the reason for the majority of the French Canadians today, they also brought in new diseases with them which harmed the health of Canadians. Though this is a huge health issue for the people who carry this mutation, it helps build on evolutionary biology and helps scientists build new medication and genetic diagnoses.

The sources that I used to find the information needed are linked below. The sources I used were all secondary sources except one primary source. The primary source I used was a science report that discusses the T14484C genetic mutation.

  1. Continuity and Change:

Some lives of French Canadians today are still impacted by the genetics of their ancestors from les Filles du Roi. Just like how les Filles du Roi is responsible for the large majority of French Canadians, they are also responsible for bringing in the mother’s curse to Canada. Scientists used to think that mitochondria dysfunction would get weeded out due to the great works of natural selection, but after some more research and a closer look at les Filles du Roi genetic documents, they are starting to question if it will ever weed out. Not only does Leber’s disease lend itself to self destruction (because it only harms men and is benign to women), it also lowers the chances of reproduction. As long as there is one woman with the mutation, the mutation will continue to spread.

The one major difference between then and now, is that now we have the knowledge and technology to be able to place a name to the disease and figure out what is causing it to happen. Even though it seems like a small step, it gives scientists something to work with to maybe find a way to fix the mutation and banish the ‘curse’.

  1. Cause and Consequence:

This mutation happened because King Louis XIV sent in les Filles du Roi and one of the women carried the mutation. The consequence meant her entire family line that were men to also carry the mutation, downgrading their health and ability to reproduce. Studies show that men who carry the mutation have a lower chance of getting married.

However, to contradict the point, carrying the mutation is better than having no one to carry the mutation. It was because of les Filles du Roi that we have the French Canadians we have today. As stated before, they were the founding mothers of Quebec and lots of French Canadians today can trace their ancestry back to the original 800.

Part B Social Studies Inquiry Processes:

In conclusion, I can say that one of the biggest health issues that les Filles du Roi brought into New France is the Mother’s Curse which was hypothesized in 2004 and is still getting proved today. Though the sick and poor women brought in many other diseases, the majority of them were weeded out with natural selection. The mother’s curse still has an impact on French Canadians today and is believed to be brought in by a single woman in les Filles du Roi. As stated before, those 800 women created the French-Canadian population, but they also created a disease that no one can quite understand, even now 355 years later. Les Filles du Roi was a big turning point in French-Canadian history, not only did the women increase the French population at the time,  they also unwittingly brought in a genetic mutation that is harming many young French-Canadian men but also can’t be solved.

Photo Citations

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leber%27s_hereditary_optic_neuropathy

King’s Daughters and founding Mothers

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_XIV_of_France

Information sources:

https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2017/09/how-a-fille-du-roy-brought-the-mothers-curse-to-canada/540153/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1224533/

http://www.cbc.ca/2017/canadathestoryofus/most-french-canadians-are-descended-from-these-800-women-1.4029699

https://www.canada.ca/en/parks-canada/news/2016/09/immigration-filles-new-france.html